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              Home History and Culture The People's Republic of China
              The People's Republic of China
              Learn Chinese - History and Culture

              ?People's Republic of China
              The People's Republic of China
              (PRC) (zhōng huá rén mín gong hé guó 中華人民共和國) commonly known as China, is the largest country in East Asia and the most populous in the world with over 1.3 billion people, approximately one-fifth of the world's population. It is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China (zhōng guó gòng chǎn dǎng 中國共產黨) under a single-party system, and has jurisdiction over twenty-two provinces, five autonomous regions, which are Xinjiang (xīn jiāng 新疆), Inner Mongolia (nèi měng gǔ 內蒙古), Tibet (xī zàng 西藏), Ningxia (níng xià 寧夏), and Guangxi (guǎng xī 廣西); four municipalities, which are Beijing (běi jīng 北京), Tianjin (tiān jīn 天津), Shanghai (shàng hǎi 上海), and Chongqing (chóng qìng 重慶); and two highly autonomous Special Administrative Regions (tè bié xíng zhèng qū 特別行政區), which are Hong Kong (xiāng gǎng 香港) and Macau (ào mén 澳門).

              ??????? Founding Ceremony of the People's Republic of China
              During the early years of People’s Republic of China, she take part in the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea (kàng měi yuán cháo 抗美援朝) and then there came the land reform (tǔ dì gǎi gé 土地改革), which has consolidated the power of people’s democratic dictatorship and revive the national economy.

              National Flag and National EmblemFrom 1953, China has set up to carry out the socialist industrialization and three major transformations, i.e., those in agriculture, handicrafts and capitalist industry and commerce; and gradually transformed from New Democracy to Socialism. By 1956, China has fundamentally set up socialist system, and entered into the era of the primary stage of socialism.

              China has made a great progress in socialist construction and laid a solid material foundation for the modernization drive. However, there were mistakes of impetuosity and premature advance, such as the Great Leap Forward (dà yuè jìn 大躍進), the movement to establish people's communes (rén mín gōng shè huà yùn dòng 人民公社化運動), and even made a serious overall mistake which is Cultural Revolution (wén huà dà gé mìng 文化大革命).

              After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee (shí yī jiè sān zhōng quán huì 十一屆三中全會), China has entered into a new era by carrying out opening up and reform, which is a great turning point in history. The Communist Party in China has determined the way of developing which is building socialism with Chinese characteristics, with Deng Xiaoping Theory (dèng xiǎo píng lǐ lùn 鄧小平理論) as the fundamental guarantee.

              New look of the rural area in ChinaSince the market-based economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest growing economies and the world's second largest exporter and the third largest importer of goods. Rapid industrialization has reduced its poverty rate from 53% in 1981 to 8% in 2001.

              New look of urban area in China after the reform and opening upWith its development, China has been of great importance in the world today, which is reflected through its role as the world's third largest economy nominally (or second largest by PPP) and a permanent member of the UN Security Council as well as being a member of several other multilateral organizations including the WTO, APEC, East Asia Summit, and Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In addition, it is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army with the second largest defense budget.

              ????? 1949年中華人民共和國的成立是中國現代史的開端。新中國成立初期,我國進行了抗美援朝戰爭和土地改革運動等,鞏固了人民民主專政的國家政權,迅速恢復了國民經濟。

              Rural area in China????? 從1953年開始,我國開始進行社會主義工業化建設和對農業、手工業與資本主義工商業的社會主義改造(即三大改造),逐步由新民主主義向社會主義過渡。到1956年,我國基本建立了社會主義制度,進入社會主義初級階段。我國在全面建設社會主義的進程中,取得了巨大的成就,初步奠定了現代化建設的物質文化基礎。但是,在社會主義道路的探索中,也出現過“大躍進”運動和人民公社化運動等急躁冒進的錯誤,甚至出現了“文化大革命”那樣全局性的、長時間的嚴重錯誤。

              ????? 中國共產黨十一屆三中全會后,我國實現了歷史性的偉大轉折,進入了改革開放和社會主義現代化建設的新時期。中國共產黨在實踐中逐步找到了建設有中國特色社會主義的道路。鄧小平理論指導地位的確立,成為中國實現社會主義現代化的根本保證。



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