Skip to content
              Site Tools
              Increase font size Decrease font size Default font size default color blue color green color
              Home History and Culture Thirty-Six Strategies 25-28
              Thirty-Six Strategies 25-28
              Learn Chinese - History and Culture

              25.Replace The Beams With Rotten Timbers

              Replace the enemy's strength with weakness. One way of making for the enemy's weak points is to give the enemy weaknesses that he does not recognize. Infiltration of your own picked personnel to take key roles in the enemy's forces is one way of following this stratagem. But it's less costly and less risky to cause the opponent to switch out his own best people.

              In 383 emperor Fu Jian of Qin, personally led an advance guard of 5,000 horses to attack the Jin general Xie Shi. Discovering that the Jin forces were greater than he anticipated, the emperor had his army form defensive positions along the bank of the river. The Jin armies likewise encamped on the opposite side. Neither side wished to cross first since it was well known that an army is most vulnerable when crossing a river. General Shi sent an envoy across the river with a message that read: " My lord, your army has entered deeply into our territory, and in deploying your ranks you have crowded upon the river. This is the plan for a lengthy stalemate. Do you really want to fight? If you will order your men to withdraw to a safe distance and allow us to cross we can then fight it out and settle the matter quickly."

              The emperor agreed to the request. When his advisors objected, emperor Fu Jian told them that he planned to turn his army about and attack the Jin after half their troops had crossed. But general Xie anticipated the emperor's treachery and sent scouts disguised as imperial troops to infiltrate the Qin ranks. When the emperor ordered his army to pull back, the disguised Jin troops began to incite panic by spreading the rumor that Qin was withdrawing in defeat and that Jin was in hot pursuit. The retreat quickly turned into a rout as the Qin troops broke formation to escape. The emperor and his generals raced frantically after the fleeing soldiers with whips in hand to stop them, but to no avail. The Jin army quickly crossed the river and pursued the Qin forces inflicting enormous casualties. The emperor was wounded and narrowly escaped.

              26.Point At The Mulberry, But Curse The Locust Tree
              To discipline, control, or warn others whose status or position excludes them from direct confrontation; use analogy and innuendo. Without directly naming names, those accused cannot retaliate without revealing their complicity.
              During the Spring and Autumn period, Duke Huan of the prosperous Qi made Guan Zhong his chief minister. Duke Huan wanted to be dominant and invited the eight states to a meeting on forming an alliance. Chen, Cai, Zhu and Song attended the meeting. Lu, Wei, Zheng, Cao did not attend the meeting. Duke Huan told those who attended the meeting that he wanted their support to deal with Lu first. The duke of Song however did not want part of it and left. This greatly angered Duke Huan.

              Duke Huan was about to launch an attack to punish Song when Guan Zhong stopped him, "Song is far, Lu is near. Let's deal with Lu first. We can attack Lu's vassal Sui." Sui was small and easy to conquer.
              Guan Zhong also said, "We can strike at Sui first to scare Lu. Lu will then pay allegience to us. Song will also feel intimidated."

              Duke Huan sent his army to attack Sui. The duke of Lu was told that the Qi army had subdued Sui. The duke of Lu quickly apologised to Qi. Wei and Cao also apologised for their absence at the meeting. Lu, Wei, Cao and Qi joined forces to attack Song. The duke of Song was terrified and quickly mend fences with Qi.
              In 678 BC, Duke Huan succeeded in forming an alliance of eight states with barely any fighting.

              27.Feign Madness, But Keep Your Balance
              The man who survived danger by pretending to be insane or mentally deficient. It's not fun to be thought of as stupid, but it is safer than to be reckoned intelligent and therefore dangerous. Hide behind the mask of a fool, a drunk, or a madman to create confusion about your intentions and motivations. Lure your opponent into underestimating your ability until, overconfident, he drops his guard. Then you may attack.

              During the final years of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty there appeared a ballad that foretold the fall of the house of Sui and the ascent of a man named Li as emperor. The ballad became immensely popular among the disaffected subjects of Emperor Yang's infamous rule. The emperor, being superstitious and believing in the prophecy himself, began a campaign to search out and execute anyone of importance with the surname Li. He had numerous ministers and officials along with their entire families put to the sword.

              A minor official whose name was, Li Yuan, was serving as superintendent in the provinces when he was summoned to the court. Li Yuan delayed appearing in court by claiming poor health. Li Yuan had a niece who was a palace maid and one day the emperor asked her where her uncle Li has been. The lady replied that her uncle was ill. The emperor said: "I wonder if he is courting death?" When Li Yuan heard this he was certain that if he obeyed the summons to court he would never return. Thereupon he feigned madness and pretended to become an incorrigible drunk. When the imperial spies reported Li's behavior the emperor thought that a madmen could never fulfill the prophesy and was no longer suspicious of Li. Surprisingly, two years later the Sui emperor placed Li in charge of a field army to defend the empire against barbarian incursions. Li fought bravely, won the respect of his troops, marched on the capital, and went on to found the illustrious Tang dynasty thus fulfilling the prophecy.

              28.Lure Your Enemy Onto The Roof, Then Take Away The Ladder
              With baits and deceptions lure your enemy and draw the opponent into a trap. Then cut off his lines of communication and avenue of escape. One application of this stratagem was to lure the enemy army into attacking what appears to be your own weakened front line. Once they commit to an attack, half your forces rush their flank or rear, thus enabling you to harass them from two sides.

              Luring an antagonistic person into saying too much in front of others, or tricking a boaster into making a claim in front of witnesses that he cannot back up, or getting a commitment from an adversary to do things your way are all methods of removing the ladder after the enemy has ascended your walls. An impatient, overly sensitive, choleric person is prone to say too much, and so the best way to handle such a person is by patience and quietness at the start and then firmness and immoveable resolution at the end.

              After defeating the rebel kingdom of Wei, the famous Han general Han Xin was sent to quell the other two kingdoms that had revolted, Qi and Chu. General Han set out towards Qi but Chu sent its general Long Chu with a force of two hundred thousand men to intercept Han's invasion of Qi. The two armies met on opposite sides of the Wei river. General Han ordered his men to fill over ten thousand sandbags and carry them up-river to dam the flow of water. The next morning General Han led his army across the lowered river and attacked Chu, but after a short engagement pretended defeat and fled back across the river. General Long announced, " See I always knew Han Xin was a coward!" and he led his army across the river in pursuit. Through a prearranged signal, General Han had his men break the dam and free the pent up waters. Only half of the Chu army was across the river when the flood cut the army in half drowning those caught midstream. General Han then wheeled around his retreating forces and attacked the advance guard of Chu killing its general Long Chu. The remaining troops panicked and fled in all directions but were captured by the pursuing Han soldiers.

              三十六計故事 25-28

              第25計 偷梁換柱

              【讀音】tōu liáng huàn zhù
              【解釋】指用偷換的辦法,暗中改換事物的本質和內容,以達蒙混欺騙的目的。在軍事上,指聯合對敵作戰時,反復變動友軍陣線,借以調換其兵力,等待友軍有機可乘、一敗涂地之時,將其全部控制。這反映了在封建社會里,軍閥割據,所謂“友軍”,不過只是暫時的聯合而已,所以“兼并盟友”是常事。不過,從軍事謀略上去理解本計,重點也可以放在對敵軍“頻更共陣”上。也就是多次佯攻,促使敵人變換陣容,然后伺機攻其弱點。這種調動敵人的謀略,也能收到很好的效果。
              【典故】唐朝張守節《正義》引《帝王世紀》:“紂倒曳九牛,撫梁易柱 ?!?br /> 公元383年,前秦皇帝符堅親自率領5000騎兵進攻。當時東晉的指揮為大將軍謝安。當發現東晉的軍隊比自己預料中要強大時,符堅命令部隊在河對岸駐扎,于是兩軍隔岸對峙。 雙方都希望自己可以第一個渡河,但同時又知道軍隊在渡河時是最容易受到攻擊的。謝玄派使者去見符堅,說:“大王您帶領軍隊孤身深入,又與我方隔岸對峙,這不是長久的計謀,為什么不速戰速決呢。如果將您的軍隊稍微向后撤退一些,使得晉軍渡過河,然后再決一勝負不是更好么?”
              符堅答應了這個請求。前秦的其他將領都表示反對,但符堅認為可以將計就計,讓軍隊稍向后退,待晉軍半渡過河時,再以騎兵沖殺,這樣就可以取得勝利??芍x安早就預料到符堅會違背約定,于是派遣了一些偵察員偽裝成前秦的士兵混跡在部隊中。當符堅下令后退時,這些偽裝的士兵立刻大叫:“我們打敗了!”來制造混亂,而前秦兵士信以為真,于是轉身竟相奔逃。前鋒的潰敗,引起后續部隊的驚恐,也隨之潰逃,行成連鎖反應,結果全軍潰逃,向北敗退。晉軍乘勝追擊,前秦人馬相踏而死,滿山遍野,充塞大河。苻堅本人也中箭負傷,單槍匹馬逃回洛陽。


              第26計 指桑罵槐

              【讀音】zhī sāng mà huái
              【解釋】本意是指著桑樹而實罵槐樹。比喻表面上是在罵一個人,實際上是在罵另外一個人。用于軍事應從兩方面廣為理解,一是要運用各種政治和外交謀略,“指?!倍傲R槐”,施加壓力配合軍事行動。對于弱小的對手,可以用警告和利誘的方法,不戰而勝。對于比較強大的對手也可以旁敲側擊威懾他。二是作為部隊的指揮官,必須做到令行禁止,法令嚴明。所以,有時采用“殺雞儆猴”的方法,抓住個別壞典型,從嚴處理,就可以震懾全軍將士。
              【典故】《紅樓夢》第十六回:“咱們家所有的這些管家奶奶,那一個是好纏的?錯一點兒他們就笑話打趣。偏一點兒他們就桑罵槐的抱怨?!?br /> 春秋時期,齊桓公任命管仲為丞相,使得齊國國力昌盛。于是,齊桓公想要召開一個八國聯盟大會,而由自己來充當盟主。但這一次會議,只有宋、陳、蔡、邾四個國家前來參加,魯、衛、鄭、曹四國缺席。齊桓公建議與會的四國國君,大家一起合力首先對付魯國。宋國的國君不贊同這樣的做法,于是在會議中途離開,這讓齊桓公非常生氣。
              齊桓公想要立刻攻打宋國,但管仲阻止了他。管仲說:“宋太遠了,魯國比較近,所以請先對付魯國吧。攻打魯國的話,可以先進軍魯國的諸侯國隋?!彼鍑苄?,非常容易攻占。
              管仲又說:“攻打隋國可以讓魯國驚恐不安,繼而向我們效忠。那么宋也會因此而感到恐慌?!?br /> 齊桓公派遣他的軍隊前去攻打隋。當魯國國君得知這一消息后,立刻為自己之前的傲慢向齊國道歉,衛和曹也同樣為他們之前的缺席表示歉意。魯、衛、曹、齊結成聯盟準備一起前去攻打宋國。宋國的國君極度驚嚇之下,馬上亦改善了與齊國的邦交。
              公元前678年,齊桓公在沒有打一場仗的情況下,成功地建立八國聯盟,成為盟主。


              第27計 假癡不癲

              【讀音】jiǎ chī bù diān
              【解釋】癡:傻,呆。癲:瘋癲,癲狂。假裝呆傻,實際并不瘋癲。形容外表看似愚鈍,而心里卻十分清醒。用在軍事上,指有時為了以退求進,必須假癡不癲,借此麻痹對方,等待最佳時機,以爭取獲勝。
              隋朝末年,隋煬帝的荒淫統治激情民眾不滿。當時民間流傳著一首民謠,稱隋朝即將滅亡,而一個姓李的人會成為新的帝王。隋煬帝非常迷信,當他聽到這首民謠后十分緊張,四處找尋在朝廷里是否有姓李的重臣,還殺了眾多的大臣、普通官員及其家屬。
              當時,有一名名叫李淵的小官,當他被傳喚上朝時,他謊稱身體虛弱而推辭。李淵有一名在皇宮當宮女的侄女,一天隋煬帝問她是不是有一個叫李淵的舅舅。那個侄女回答說,她的舅舅生病了。隋煬帝說:“我想知道他是不是病得快死了?!?李淵聽到這個消息后,知道如果他前去上朝一定是有去無回,于是他假裝成一個不可救藥的瘋漢,成日喝酒買醉。當密探向隋煬帝報告了這一情況后,隋煬帝認為瘋子是不可能造反的,于是對李淵便不再懷疑。兩年以后,隋末農民起義,李淵乘機起兵攻入長安,建立了唐朝。


              第28計 上屋抽梯

              【讀音】shàng wū chōu tī
              【解釋】本意是指讓人先嘗到甜頭,然后斷其后路。用于軍事,是指先給敵人大開方便之門,目的是讓他進入你預先設下的圈套,然后一網打盡。這是一個創造戰機的過程,需要有一定的耐心。而且安放梯子有很大的學問,對貪婪的敵人,要用利益誘惑;對驕傲的敵人,要示弱迷惑;對莽撞無謀的敵人,要暗設埋伏使其中計。
              韓信被派遣前往齊、楚兩地平定叛亂。韓信率領部隊往齊地挺進,但是楚國派遣了將軍龍且帶領著一支軍隊擋住了韓信的去路。兩軍在濰水兩岸對峙。韓信仔細觀察戰場地形,決定用水戰破敵。他連夜秘密派人裝滿1萬多個沙袋,將濰水上游堵起來,這樣下游河水變淺了。次日上午,韓信率軍過河進攻龍且。龍且見狀,毫不示弱。親率大軍迎敵。雙方未戰幾合,韓信佯敗退兵。龍且不知是計,以為漢軍無能,得意地說:“我早知道韓信膽小?!庇谑?,傳令全軍渡河追趕,想一舉消滅韓信。當齊、楚聯軍剛剛沖到河心,韓信暗令埋伏在上游的漢軍扒開沙袋,飛奔而下的大水將正在渡河的齊、楚聯軍截為兩段,被大水卷走的士兵不計其數。韓信回兵掩殺過去,一舉全殲了已過河的齊、楚聯軍,齊王逃跑,龍且戰死,留在東岸尚未渡河的齊、楚聯軍見主帥已死,紛紛棄甲曳兵,落荒而逃。就這樣,漢軍一舉占領了齊地全境。
               

              China Yellow Pages


              CHINESECHINA河南熟女FREE