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              Home History and Culture Thirty-Six Strategies 25-28
              Thirty-Six Strategies 25-28
              Learn Chinese - History and Culture

              25.Replace The Beams With Rotten Timbers

              Replace the enemy's strength with weakness. One way of making for the enemy's weak points is to give the enemy weaknesses that he does not recognize. Infiltration of your own picked personnel to take key roles in the enemy's forces is one way of following this stratagem. But it's less costly and less risky to cause the opponent to switch out his own best people.

              In 383 emperor Fu Jian of Qin, personally led an advance guard of 5,000 horses to attack the Jin general Xie Shi. Discovering that the Jin forces were greater than he anticipated, the emperor had his army form defensive positions along the bank of the river. The Jin armies likewise encamped on the opposite side. Neither side wished to cross first since it was well known that an army is most vulnerable when crossing a river. General Shi sent an envoy across the river with a message that read: " My lord, your army has entered deeply into our territory, and in deploying your ranks you have crowded upon the river. This is the plan for a lengthy stalemate. Do you really want to fight? If you will order your men to withdraw to a safe distance and allow us to cross we can then fight it out and settle the matter quickly."

              The emperor agreed to the request. When his advisors objected, emperor Fu Jian told them that he planned to turn his army about and attack the Jin after half their troops had crossed. But general Xie anticipated the emperor's treachery and sent scouts disguised as imperial troops to infiltrate the Qin ranks. When the emperor ordered his army to pull back, the disguised Jin troops began to incite panic by spreading the rumor that Qin was withdrawing in defeat and that Jin was in hot pursuit. The retreat quickly turned into a rout as the Qin troops broke formation to escape. The emperor and his generals raced frantically after the fleeing soldiers with whips in hand to stop them, but to no avail. The Jin army quickly crossed the river and pursued the Qin forces inflicting enormous casualties. The emperor was wounded and narrowly escaped.

              26.Point At The Mulberry, But Curse The Locust Tree
              To discipline, control, or warn others whose status or position excludes them from direct confrontation; use analogy and innuendo. Without directly naming names, those accused cannot retaliate without revealing their complicity.
              During the Spring and Autumn period, Duke Huan of the prosperous Qi made Guan Zhong his chief minister. Duke Huan wanted to be dominant and invited the eight states to a meeting on forming an alliance. Chen, Cai, Zhu and Song attended the meeting. Lu, Wei, Zheng, Cao did not attend the meeting. Duke Huan told those who attended the meeting that he wanted their support to deal with Lu first. The duke of Song however did not want part of it and left. This greatly angered Duke Huan.

              Duke Huan was about to launch an attack to punish Song when Guan Zhong stopped him, "Song is far, Lu is near. Let's deal with Lu first. We can attack Lu's vassal Sui." Sui was small and easy to conquer.
              Guan Zhong also said, "We can strike at Sui first to scare Lu. Lu will then pay allegience to us. Song will also feel intimidated."

              Duke Huan sent his army to attack Sui. The duke of Lu was told that the Qi army had subdued Sui. The duke of Lu quickly apologised to Qi. Wei and Cao also apologised for their absence at the meeting. Lu, Wei, Cao and Qi joined forces to attack Song. The duke of Song was terrified and quickly mend fences with Qi.
              In 678 BC, Duke Huan succeeded in forming an alliance of eight states with barely any fighting.

              27.Feign Madness, But Keep Your Balance
              The man who survived danger by pretending to be insane or mentally deficient. It's not fun to be thought of as stupid, but it is safer than to be reckoned intelligent and therefore dangerous. Hide behind the mask of a fool, a drunk, or a madman to create confusion about your intentions and motivations. Lure your opponent into underestimating your ability until, overconfident, he drops his guard. Then you may attack.

              During the final years of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty there appeared a ballad that foretold the fall of the house of Sui and the ascent of a man named Li as emperor. The ballad became immensely popular among the disaffected subjects of Emperor Yang's infamous rule. The emperor, being superstitious and believing in the prophecy himself, began a campaign to search out and execute anyone of importance with the surname Li. He had numerous ministers and officials along with their entire families put to the sword.

              A minor official whose name was, Li Yuan, was serving as superintendent in the provinces when he was summoned to the court. Li Yuan delayed appearing in court by claiming poor health. Li Yuan had a niece who was a palace maid and one day the emperor asked her where her uncle Li has been. The lady replied that her uncle was ill. The emperor said: "I wonder if he is courting death?" When Li Yuan heard this he was certain that if he obeyed the summons to court he would never return. Thereupon he feigned madness and pretended to become an incorrigible drunk. When the imperial spies reported Li's behavior the emperor thought that a madmen could never fulfill the prophesy and was no longer suspicious of Li. Surprisingly, two years later the Sui emperor placed Li in charge of a field army to defend the empire against barbarian incursions. Li fought bravely, won the respect of his troops, marched on the capital, and went on to found the illustrious Tang dynasty thus fulfilling the prophecy.

              28.Lure Your Enemy Onto The Roof, Then Take Away The Ladder
              With baits and deceptions lure your enemy and draw the opponent into a trap. Then cut off his lines of communication and avenue of escape. One application of this stratagem was to lure the enemy army into attacking what appears to be your own weakened front line. Once they commit to an attack, half your forces rush their flank or rear, thus enabling you to harass them from two sides.

              Luring an antagonistic person into saying too much in front of others, or tricking a boaster into making a claim in front of witnesses that he cannot back up, or getting a commitment from an adversary to do things your way are all methods of removing the ladder after the enemy has ascended your walls. An impatient, overly sensitive, choleric person is prone to say too much, and so the best way to handle such a person is by patience and quietness at the start and then firmness and immoveable resolution at the end.

              After defeating the rebel kingdom of Wei, the famous Han general Han Xin was sent to quell the other two kingdoms that had revolted, Qi and Chu. General Han set out towards Qi but Chu sent its general Long Chu with a force of two hundred thousand men to intercept Han's invasion of Qi. The two armies met on opposite sides of the Wei river. General Han ordered his men to fill over ten thousand sandbags and carry them up-river to dam the flow of water. The next morning General Han led his army across the lowered river and attacked Chu, but after a short engagement pretended defeat and fled back across the river. General Long announced, " See I always knew Han Xin was a coward!" and he led his army across the river in pursuit. Through a prearranged signal, General Han had his men break the dam and free the pent up waters. Only half of the Chu army was across the river when the flood cut the army in half drowning those caught midstream. General Han then wheeled around his retreating forces and attacked the advance guard of Chu killing its general Long Chu. The remaining troops panicked and fled in all directions but were captured by the pursuing Han soldiers.

              三十六計故事 25-28

              第25計 偷梁換柱

              【讀音】tōu liáng huàn zhù
              【典故】唐朝張守節《正義》引《帝王世紀》:“紂倒曳九牛,撫梁易柱 ?!?br /> 公元383年,前秦皇帝符堅親自率領5000騎兵進攻。當時東晉的指揮為大將軍謝安。當發現東晉的軍隊比自己預料中要強大時,符堅命令部隊在河對岸駐扎,于是兩軍隔岸對峙。 雙方都希望自己可以第一個渡河,但同時又知道軍隊在渡河時是最容易受到攻擊的。謝玄派使者去見符堅,說:“大王您帶領軍隊孤身深入,又與我方隔岸對峙,這不是長久的計謀,為什么不速戰速決呢。如果將您的軍隊稍微向后撤退一些,使得晉軍渡過河,然后再決一勝負不是更好么?”

              第26計 指桑罵槐

              【讀音】zhī sāng mà huái
              【典故】《紅樓夢》第十六回:“咱們家所有的這些管家奶奶,那一個是好纏的?錯一點兒他們就笑話打趣。偏一點兒他們就桑罵槐的抱怨?!?br /> 春秋時期,齊桓公任命管仲為丞相,使得齊國國力昌盛。于是,齊桓公想要召開一個八國聯盟大會,而由自己來充當盟主。但這一次會議,只有宋、陳、蔡、邾四個國家前來參加,魯、衛、鄭、曹四國缺席。齊桓公建議與會的四國國君,大家一起合力首先對付魯國。宋國的國君不贊同這樣的做法,于是在會議中途離開,這讓齊桓公非常生氣。
              管仲又說:“攻打隋國可以讓魯國驚恐不安,繼而向我們效忠。那么宋也會因此而感到恐慌?!?br /> 齊桓公派遣他的軍隊前去攻打隋。當魯國國君得知這一消息后,立刻為自己之前的傲慢向齊國道歉,衛和曹也同樣為他們之前的缺席表示歉意。魯、衛、曹、齊結成聯盟準備一起前去攻打宋國。宋國的國君極度驚嚇之下,馬上亦改善了與齊國的邦交。

              第27計 假癡不癲

              【讀音】jiǎ chī bù diān

              第28計 上屋抽梯

              【讀音】shàng wū chōu tī

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