Skip to content
              Site Tools
              Increase font size Decrease font size Default font size default color blue color green color
              Home History and Culture Thirty-Six Strategies 29-32
              Thirty-Six Strategies 29-32
              Learn Chinese - History and Culture

              29.Deck The Dead Tree With Silk Blossoms

              Tying silk blossoms on a dead tree gives the illusion that the tree is healthy. Through the use of artifice and disguise make something of no value appear valuable; of no threat appear dangerous; of no use, useful.

              The warlord Cao Cao of Wei, was pursuing the fleeing army and population of Shu led by the heroes of the Peach Grove, Liu Pei and Chang Fei. The retreating column came upon the Changpan bridge over the Wei river with the enemy army only hours behind. On the opposite side of the river there was heavy forest. Chang Fei turned to his general Liu Pei and said: "This bridge is the only crossing point for miles and provides us with an advantage. You take the army and people across while I hold off the Wei army to give you as much of a lead as possible." After the Shu army had crossed over, Chang Fei sent his small group of cavalrymen across the bridge into the forest where they tied branches to their horses tails and rode around in circles. Chang Fei remained sitting on his charger in the middle of the bridge. When the pursuing army of Wei came upon the sight of Chang Fei alone on the bridge they stopped. Cao Cao noticed the huge dust cloud in the distance behind the woods and suspected a trap. Chang Fei roared out a challenge to the Wei army but Cao Cao, now convinced this was a ruse, turned his men around to retreat. Chang Fei seeing the Wei army turn about spurred his charger towards the Wei as though to attack them single handedly. This so unnerved the Wei forces that they made a mad scramble to escape the area convinced a trap was closing around them. This trick bought Lui Pei and Chang Fei enough time to escape with their men and regroup at Chianling.

              30.Exchange The Role Of Guest For That Of Host
              Defeat the enemy from within by infiltrating the enemy's camp under the guise of cooperation, surrender, or peace treaties. In this way you can discover his weakness and then, when the enemy's guard is relaxed, strike directly at the source of his strength.

              In the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, by Luo Guanzhong, Han Fu participated in the coalition against Dong Zhuo. After the coalition is broken, he returned to Jizhou. Yuan Shao, whose troops are supported by Han Fu begins to look at the options to remove his dependency on the food shipment from Han Fu to maintain his troops. Following Feng Ji's advice, Yuan Shao pretended to be willing to divide Han Fu's territory with Gongsun Zan if he attacks Han Fu. Seeing the incoming invasion from Gongsun Zan, the frightened Han Fu surrendered his territory to Yuan Shao although a number of officials pleaded for him to reconsider. After Yuan Shao took over Jizhou, he kept the territory for himself, which infuriated Gongsun Zan, and stripped Han Fu's rank. The disappointed Han Fu left everything, including his family and went to seek refuge.

              31.The Strategy Of Beautiful Women
              Send your enemy beautiful women to cause discord within his camp. This strategy can work on three levels. First, the ruler becomes so enamored with the beauty that he neglects his duties and allows his vigilance to wane. Second, other males at court will begin to display aggressive behavior that inflames minor differences hindering co-operation and destroying morale. Third, other females at court, motivated by jealousy and envy, begin to plot intrigues further exasperating the situation.

              Even though this has been done many times, perhaps the most famous historical example is Xi Shi who was sent to the State of Wu during the Spring and Autumn Period.
              Xi Shi's beauty was said to be so extreme that while laundering her garments in the river, the fish were so dazzled that they forgot how to swim and gradually sunk to the bottom of the rive.

              King Gou Jian of Yue, was once imprisoned after a defeat in a war by King Fu Chai of Wu, king of the State of Wu. The state of Yue later became a tribulatory to Wu. Secretly planning his revenge, Gou Jian's minister Wen Zhong suggested training beautiful women and offering them to Fu Chai as a tribute. His other minister, Fan Li, found Xi Shi and Zheng Dan, and gifted them to Fu Chai in 490 BC.

              Bewitched by the beauty of Xi Shi and Zheng Dan, Fu Chai forgot all about his state affairs and on their instigation, killed his best advisor, the great general Wu Zixu. Fu Chai even built Guanwa Palace (Palace of Beautiful Women) in an imperial park on the slope of Lingyan Hill, about 15 kilometers west of Suzhou. The strength of Wu dwindled, and in 473 BC Gou Jian launched his strike and put the Wu army to full rout. King Fu Chai lamented that he should have listened to Wu Zixu, and then committed suicide.

              32.The Strategy Of Open City Gates
              When the enemy is superior in numbers and your situation is such that you expect to be overrun at any moment, then drop all pretence of military preparedness and act casually. Unless the enemy has an accurate description of your situation this unusual behavior will arouse suspicions. With luck he will be dissuaded from attacking.

              In 149 BC, the famous strategist Kong Ming of Shu, launched an attack against the state of Wei by sending an advance force to scout for the enemy. Leading the army of Wei was Suma-I who also sent an advance force of fifty thousand troops. The two vanguards met and engaged in battle but the Wei forces were superior and won the day. The defeated Shu vanguard raced back to the main body of Kong Ming's army whose troops, seeing the look of fear in the faces of their comrades, thought that the enemy was upon them and fled in panic. Kong Ming and a few bodyguards fled to the city of Yangping with the Wei army in hot pursuit. Vastly outnumbered and unable to either retreat or sustain a siege, Kong Ming played a last resort strategy that made him famous throughout China. He removed all the guards and battle flags from the walls and had all four of the city gates flung open. When Suma-I approached the city he could see only a few old men nonchalantly sweeping the grounds within the gates. Kong-Ming was seen sitting in one of the towers smiling and playing his lute. Suma-I remarked to his advisors: "That man seems to be too happy for my comfort. Doubtless he has some deep laid scheme in mind to bring us all to disaster." As they stood spell bound, the strains of Kong Ming's lute reached their ears and this only heightened their sense of foreboding. Such peculiar behavior was too suspicious and, fearing a clever trap, Suma-I turned his army back and retreated. After the army left Kong Ming and his remaining troops departed in the opposite direction and made their way safely back to their capital.

              三十六計故事 29-32
              第29計 樹上開花


              【讀音】shù shàng kāi huā
              【解釋】本意是指樹上本來沒有開花,但可以用彩色的綢子剪成花朵粘在樹上,做得和真花一祥,不仔細去看,真假難辯。此計用在軍事上,指自已的力量比較小,卻可以借友軍勢力或借某種因素制造假象,使自己的陣營顯得強大,也就是說,在戰爭中要善于借助各種因素來為自己壯大聲勢。

              劉備和張飛帶領下的蜀軍一路敗逃,而曹操率領的魏軍緊追不舍。來到長坂橋時,張飛看到河對岸有一片茂盛的森林,便轉身對劉備說:“這座橋是過河的唯一的通道,這為我們提供了優勢。你帶著部隊先走,我留在這邊拖延魏軍?!碑斒褴婋x開后,張飛讓一小隊騎兵騎著馬在森林里跑動,自己仍然站在橋梁中間。追擊的魏軍來到橋前,他們看到了獨身一人的張飛,便停了下來。曹操注意到不遠處的森林里煙塵飛揚,張飛又面無懼色地沖他們大喊“放馬過來”,便認為這是一個圈套,森林里一定有埋伏,于是畏縮不前,而這給了蜀軍足夠的時候逃跑并重新整頓。
              這個故事對敗退的蜀軍而言,使用了“金蟬脫殼”一計,以假象迷惑曹軍得以逃脫。而對制造假象的張飛而言,他正是使用了“樹上開花”一計,命令手下的一小隊騎兵真真假假地制造幻相,使得曹軍以為森林里藏有千軍萬馬。

              第30計 反客為主

              【讀音】fǎn kè wéi zhǔ
              【解釋】本意是指就是變被動為主動,把主動權慢慢地掌握到自己手中來。做為一條軍事謀略,“反客為主”主要是強調把握戰機,控制戰略要地,步步為營,以攻為守,爭取先機之利。
              在羅貫中的《三國演義》中,韓馥曾參加討伐董卓的聯盟,在聯盟解散后,他回到了冀州。后來,袁紹的勢力漸漸強大,他屯兵河內,缺少糧草,十分犯愁。老友韓馥知道情況之后,主動派人送去糧草,幫袁紹解決供應困難。袁紹覺得等待別人送糧草,不能夠解決根本問題。他聽了謀士逢紀的勸告,先假意向公孫瓚表示愿意和他一起攻打冀州。眼看公孫瓚即將入侵,韓馥非常害怕,雖然許多官員竭力反對,韓馥還是向袁紹求助,請袁紹帶兵進入冀州。袁紹接管冀州后,繼續大力擴張版圖,這讓公孫瓚非常惱火;另一方面袁紹亦進一步消滅韓馥在冀州的勢力,掌握統治權。韓馥非常失望卻也無可奈何,為了保全性命,他只得和家人一起逃出冀州,尋求其他的庇護之所。


              第31計 美人計

              【讀音】měi rén jì
              【解釋】供奉美女,以消磨敵軍將帥的意志,削弱他的體質,增加他所帶領部隊的怨恨情緒。擴展地說,對于用軍事行動難以征服的敵方,要使用“糖衣炮彈”,先從思想意志上打敗敵方的將帥,使其內部喪失戰斗力,然后再行攻取。
              【典故】出自《六韜?文伐》:“養其亂臣以迷之,進美女淫聲以惑之?!?br /> 相傳西施在溪邊綄紗時,水中的魚兒被她的美麗所吸引,看得發呆,都忘了游泳,以至沉入水底。
              春秋時期,吳越發生戰爭,越國戰敗淪為吳的屬國,越王勾踐一度被吳國囚禁。當勾踐回國后,他開始秘密策劃起復仇大計。勾踐的謀士文種出主意說,可以獻給吳王夫差一些美女,讓他沉溺在享樂之中。勾踐的另一位謀士范蠡找到了西施和鄭旦,將她們作為禮物獻給了吳國的國君夫差。
              果然,這兩個美人讓夫差忘記一切政務。在她們的唆使下,夫差殺死了自己明智的謀士、大將軍伍子胥。為了討美人的歡心,他又耗費了大量人力財力在靈巖山頂建館娃宮。吳國的國力也因此逐漸衰弱,勾踐乘機率領越國軍隊進攻,大獲全勝。夫差這時才后悔沒有聽伍子胥的勸告,但為時已晚,只能絕望自殺。

              第32計 空城計

              【讀音】kōng chéng jì
              【解釋】空城計,是一種心理戰術。在己方無力守城的情況下,故意向敵人暴露我城內空虛,就是所謂“虛者虛之”。敵方產生懷疑,更會猶豫不前,就是所謂“疑中生疑”。敵人怕城內有埋伏,怕陷進埋伏圈內。但這是懸而又懸的“險策”。使用此計的關鍵,是要清楚地了解并掌握敵方將帥的心理狀況和性格特征。
              三國時期,魏將司馬懿帶領大軍15萬向諸葛亮(孔明)所在的西城蜂擁而來。當時,諸葛視身邊沒有大將,只有一班文官,所帶領的五千軍隊,也有一半運糧草去了,只剩2500名士兵在城里。眾人聽到司馬懿帶兵前來的消息都大驚失色。諸葛亮登城樓觀望后,對眾人說:“大家不要驚慌,我略用計策,便可教司馬懿退兵?!?br /> 于是,諸葛亮傳令,把所有的旌旗都藏起來,士兵原地不動,如果有私自外出以及大聲喧嘩的,立即斬首。又教士兵把四個城門打開,每個城門之上派20名士兵扮成百姓模樣,灑水掃街。諸葛亮自己披上鶴氅,戴上高高的綸巾,領著兩個小書童,帶上一張琴,到城上望敵樓前憑欄坐下,燃起香,然后慢慢彈起琴來。
              司馬懿的先頭部隊到達城下,見了這種氣勢,都不敢輕易入城,便急忙返回報告司馬懿。司馬懿聽后,笑著說:“這怎么可能呢?”于是便令三軍停下,自己飛馬前去觀看。離城不遠,他果然看見諸葛亮端坐在城樓上,笑容可掬,正在焚香彈琴。左面一個書童,手捧寶劍;右面也有一個書童,手里拿著拂塵。城門里外,20多個百姓模樣的人在低頭灑掃,旁若無人。司馬懿看后,疑惑不已,便來到中軍,今后軍充作前軍,前軍作后軍撤退。他的二子司馬昭說:“莫非是諸葛亮家中無兵,所以故意弄出這個樣子來?父親您為什么要退兵呢?”司馬懿說:“諸葛亮一生謹慎,不曾冒險?,F在城門大開,里面必有埋伏,我軍如果進去,正好中了他們的計。還是快快撤退吧!”于是各路兵馬都退了回去。
               

              China Yellow Pages


              CHINESECHINA河南熟女FREE