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              ??Mahavira Hall
              Temples is the symbolization of the long history and rich?culture of China, and are regarded as valuable?art treasures. Generally speaking, temple is not only related to Buddhism. However, in Buddhism, there are many kinds of titles for temple: such as "Temple", which does not refer to?Buddhist temple. Official residences were known as Temple since the Qin Dynasty (qín cháo 秦朝). In the?Han Dynasty?(hàn cháo 漢朝), the living place of the monks from the West also known as Temple. From then on, temple has become professionals of Chinese Buddhist architecture gradually. It also can be said that when Buddhism spread to China, Chinese people called t the Buddhist architecture as temple so as to show respect for Buddhism.

              There are many titles for temples in Taoism. When Taoism was founded its?religious organizations and activity venues were all called “Zhi” (zhì 治), also known as “Lu” (lú 廬), "Jing” (jìng 靖) and “Jingbao” (jìng bǎo 靜寶). In the Southern and Northern Dynasties,the activity venues of Taoism is called as Fairy House. During the period of Northern Zhou Wu Di (zhōu wǔ dì 周武帝), it was known as “Daoist Temple”, means viewing star and the air. Till Tang Dynasty (táng cháo 唐朝 ), the emperor regarded Laozi as ancestor. However, the emperor’s residence was “palace”. Therefore, the Taoist Structure was called “palace”. Apart from these, there are other titles, such as “court”, "shrine”, like Wenshu Yuan (wén shū yuàn 文殊院), Bixia Shrine (bì xiá cí 碧霞祠) and so on.

              Chongsheng TempleIn Confucianism the temple is called "temple”, "palace” and "altar", for example, Kong Miao (kóng miào 孔廟), Wen Miao (wén miào 文廟), Yonghe Lamasery (yōng hé gōng 雍和宮), the temple of Heaven (tiān tán 天壇), etc.. Islamism is known as "temple”, such as the Mosque. In Catholicism, the temple is called “church”. In civil society, it was known as “temple”, "shrine”. For example, the places where people worship ancestor, the deity or the former saptarsis were called the Imperial Ancestral Temple (tài miào 太廟), Zhong Yue Temple (zhōng yuè miào 中岳廟), Xi Yue Temple (xī yuè miào 西岳廟), Nan Yue Temple (nán yuè miào 南岳廟), Bei Yue Temple (béi yuè miào 北岳廟), Dai Temple (dài miào 岱廟) and so on.

              Cultural artifacts of every dynasty are well kept in Chinese Temple culture in our country. And temple culture has influenced every aspect of Chinese people's life such as astronomy, geography, architecture, painting, handwriting, sculpture, music, dancing, antiquity, temple fairs, and folk-customs and so on. The annual temple fair all over the nation has not only enriched the Chinese culture, but also improved the development of local tourism.

              Three famous temples in China:?

              White Horse TempleLuoyang White Horse Temple (luò yáng bái mǎ sì 洛陽白馬寺)

              White Horse Temple is located 12 km away from the east of Luoyang City (luò yáng shì 洛陽市). It was regarded as the "originating court in China". Established by the Eastern Han Dynasty (dōng hàn 東漢) in 68 AD when Buddhism started to spread, this temple is believed to be the first Buddhist temple built by the government in China. Covering a total area of 40, 000 square meters, the temple mainly consists of Tianwang Hall (tiān wáng diàn 天王殿), Great Buddha Hall (dà fó diàn 大佛殿), Mahavira Hall (dà xióng báo diàn 大雄寶殿), Jieyin Hall (jiē yín diàn 接引殿), Pilu Pavilion (pí lú gé 毗盧閣), and Qiyun Pagoda (qí yún tǎ 齊云塔) and so on.

              Hangzhou Lingyin Temple (háng zhōu líng yǐn sì 杭州靈隱寺)

              Lingyin Temple (or Yunlin Temple 云林寺) is situated at the foot of Lingyin Mountain, aside from the West Lake (xī hú 西湖). It was built in 326AD during the Eastern Jin dynasty (dōng jìn cháo Lingyin Temple東晉朝) (317 - 420 AD). Huili (huì lǐ 慧理), an Indian monk came to the area where he was inspired by the spiritual nature of the scenery to be found here. To his mind this had to be a dwelling of the Immortals and so he gave the temple a name "Ling Yin (Temple of the Soul's Retreat). When Emperor Kangxi (kāng xī 康熙) in Qing Dynasty (qín cháo 秦朝) take a tour to the South China, he named Lingyin Temple as “Yunlinchansi Temple (yún lín chán sì 云林禪寺)". When the temple was in full bloom, it had nine buildings, eighteen pavilions, and seventy-two palace halls. The number of monks reached to 3,000. Lingyin Temple is one of the ten most famous ancient Buddhist temples in China.

              Dengfeng Shaolin Temple (dēng fēng shào lín sì 登封少林寺)

              Shaolin TempleIt is located 12 km away from the northwest of Dengfeng County (dēng fēng xiàn 登封縣), Henan Province (hé nán shěng 河南省) , at the foot of Shaoshi Mountain (shào shì shān 少室山). It was named after the ubac of Shaoshi Mountain. Shaolin Temple was established in 495 during the Northern Wei Dynasty (běi wèi 北魏) (386-534). Thirty-two years later, Bodhidharma, the legendary Indian monk, came to Shaolin to instruct Zen Buddhism. Bodhidharma was known as the first ancestor of Chinese Buddhism, and Shaolin Temple was regarded as the original place of Zen Buddhism. Shaolin Temple is probably the most famous temple in China, not only because of its long history and its great importance in Chinese Buddhism, but also because of its martial arts or Wushu (wǔ shù 武術). The temple mainly consists of Tianwang Hall (tiān wáng diàn 天王殿), Mahavira Hall (dà xióng báo diàn 大雄寶殿), Drum Tower (gǔ lóu 鼓樓), Clock Tower (zhōng lóu 鐘樓), Sutra Collection Pavilion (cáng jīng gé 藏經閣) and so on.
              ????????????????????? Shaolin Wushu??????????????
              中國寺廟
              ????? 寺廟—我國的藝術瑰寶庫,它是我國悠久歷史文化的象征。
              ????? 從廣義上來說,寺廟不僅僅與佛教一家有關。但在佛教中,寺廟就有許多種稱謂:如“寺”,最初并不是指佛教寺廟,從秦代以來通常將官舍稱為寺。在漢代把接待從西方來的高僧居住的地方也稱為寺,從此之后,“寺”便逐漸成為中國佛教建筑的專稱。也可以這樣說,“寺”是佛教傳到中國后,中國人為尊重佛教,對佛教建筑的新稱呼。

              ?? Longxing Temple?
              ??????在道教中,寺廟的稱謂也很多:道教創立之初,其宗教組織和活動場所皆以“治”稱之。又稱為“廬”、“靖”、也稱為靜寶。在南北朝時,道教的活動場所稱呼為仙館。北周武帝時,道教活動場所的稱呼叫“道觀”,取觀星望氣之意。到了唐朝,因皇帝認老子為祖宗,而皇帝的居所稱為“宮”,所以道教建筑也稱為“宮”了。其它還有叫“院”、“祠”的,如文殊院、碧霞祠等。

              ??????儒家則稱之為“廟”、“宮”、“壇”,如孔廟、文廟,雍和宮,天壇等。伊斯蘭教稱之為Yunlinchan Temple“寺”,如清真寺等。天主教稱之為“教堂”。在原始或民間中,稱之為“廟”、“祠”,如舊時奉祀祖宗、神佛或c的地方。叫太廟、中岳廟、西岳廟、南岳廟、北岳廟、岱廟等。?

              ????? 寺廟文化它完整地保存了我國各個朝代的歷史文物,在國家公布的全國文物保護單位中,寺廟及相關設施約占一半,謂之“歷史文物的保險庫”, 乃當之不愧。寺廟建筑與傳統宮殿建筑形式相結合,具有鮮明民族風格和民俗特色。????

              ????? 同時,寺廟文化已滲透到我們生活的各個方面:如天文、地理、建筑、繪畫、書法、雕刻、音樂、舞蹈、文物、廟會、民俗等等.各地一年一度的廟會如火如荼,不僅豐富了各地的文化氛圍,同時促進了地方旅游業的發展。

              中國三大名寺

              White Horse Temple洛陽白馬寺:白馬寺位于洛陽市東12公里,稱為“中國第一古剎”。白馬寺創建于東漢十一年(68),是佛教傳入中國后由官方營造的第一座寺院。白馬寺總面積一共為四萬平方米,寺內主要建筑有天王殿、大佛殿、大雄殿、接引殿、毗盧閣、齊云塔等。

              杭州靈隱寺:靈隱寺又名云林寺,位于靈隱山腳下,西湖旁邊,其創建于東晉咸和元年(公元326年)。當時印度僧人慧理來到杭州,看到這里山峰奇秀,認為是“仙靈所隱”,所以就在這里建寺,取名“靈隱”。清康熙南巡時,賜名靈隱寺為“云林禪寺”。靈隱寺全盛時期,有九樓、十八閣、七十二殿堂,僧徒達三千余眾。靈隱寺建筑中軸線上依次為天王殿、大雄寶殿、藥師殿。

              ??????????????? Lingyin Temple
              登封少林寺:少林寺在河南登封縣城西北12公里的少室山麓五乳峰下。因寺院坐落在叢林茂密的少室山陰,以此得名。少林寺始建于北魏太和年間(495年)。32年后,印度名僧菩提達摩來到少林寺傳授禪宗。達摩被稱為中國佛教禪宗的初祖,少林寺被稱為禪宗的祖庭??赡苌倭炙率侵袊钪乃聫R,不僅僅因為它悠久的歷史以及其在中國佛教中的重要作用,而且它的武術聞名全世界。寺內主要建筑有天王殿、大雄寶殿、鼓樓、鐘樓、藏經閣等。

              ??????? South Shaolin Temple

               

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