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              Home History and Culture Thirty-Six Strategies 33-36
              Thirty-Six Strategies 33-36
              Learn Chinese - History and Culture

              33.The Strategy Of Sowing Discord

              Undermine your enemy's ability to fight by secretly causing discord between him and his friends, allies, advisors, family, commanders, soldiers, and population. While he is preoccupied settling internal disputes his ability to attack or defend, is compromised.

              This is an episode from the Three Kingdoms. Cao cao sent a letter to Zhou Yu to summon him to surrender. Zhou Yu tore Cao's letter to pieces. Zhou Yu's classmate, Jiang Gan, was working for Cao Cao as an adviser, Jiang offered to travel to Wu to persuade Zhou Yu to surrender. One day while Zhou Yu was discussing with his subordinates how to defeat Cao Cao, he was told that Jiang Gan had come to see him. Zhou immediately figured out that Jiang must have come to persuade him to surrender. Zhou Yu devised a clever plan to thwart his efforts and enlisted the help of his subordinate to carry it out. Then he went to meet Jiang Gan all smiles. Zhou Yu took Jiang Gan's hands and marshaled him into his tent and treated him to a banquet. When all his generals and subordinates came for dinner, Zhou Yu told those around the table: "This is an old friend or mine. Though he came from the Cao Cao camp, he did not come to persuade me to surrender. Please do not suspect him." After the banquet, Zhou Yu pretended that he had too much and invited Jiang Gan to his bedroom for a rest. Zhou Yu soon pretended to have fallen asleep. Jiang Gan took this chance to thumb through Zhou Yu's documents. He was shocked to find a letter from Cai Mao and Zhang Yun, two generals of the Cao camp, who had written Zhou Yu to surrender. Jiang hid letter of surrender in his pocket and returned to the bed, pretending that he was sill asleep.

              After midnight, someone sneaked into Zhou Yu's tent and woke him up, telling him "A messenger came from the Cao camp to say that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun were not yet a position to carry out their plan." After he heard the news, Zhou Yu went back to sleep. Jiang Gan got up again silently and snuck out of Zhou Yu's camp. He crossed the river immediately and handed the letter of surrender to Cao Cao. Cao was enraged and he had Cai Mao and Zhang Yun executed.

              When the news spread to Wu, Zhou Yu burst into laughter and said, "Cai Mao and Zhang Yun were the two generals I feared most. Now I fear no one." Before long, Cao cao realized that he was cheated by Zhou Yu's stratagem of sowing distrust in Cao's camp.

              34.The Strategy Of Injuring Yourself
              Pretending to be injured has two possible applications. In the first, the enemy is lulled into relaxing his guard since he no longer considers you to be an immediate threat. The second is a way of ingratiating yourself to your enemy by pretending the injury was caused by a mutual enemy.

              This is a story from Three Kingdoms that happened before the Battle of Chibi. One night, Zhou Yu was thinking hard in his tent about how to defeat Cao Cao's army, when Huang Gai came in . He suggested attacking with fire. "Well, it's exactly what I mean to do." Said Zhou Yu. "That's why I'm keeping those two spies: to convey false information to Cao's camp. But I need a man to play the same game for us." Huang Gai said he was willing to do it. They decided to carry out the trick of being flogged to win the enemy's confidence.

              The next day Zhou Yu convened a general assembly of his commanders outside his tent. He ordered the commanders to take three months's rations and prepare to defend their line. Huang Gai came forward and said: "We don't need three months. If not, we'd better throw down our weapons and sue for peace."

              Zhou Yu exploded in fury. "Ibear our lord's mandate," he cried, "to lead our troops to destroy Cao Cao. How dare you weaken our morale? Remove him and execute him!"
              Huang Gai proudly, "I have served the Southland through three successive reigns. Where do the likes of you come from?"

              The entire assembly got on their knees to intercede for Huang Gai. Zhou Yu said at last: "In consideration for the commanders' views, I shall not kill you. Give him one hundred strokes across the back!"

              Huang Gai was forced facedown to the ground. Not yet at fifty blows of the rod, his skin was broken and his oozing flesh was crossed with welts. He fainted several times.

              Zhou Yu let Kan Ze, Huang Gai's friend, to deliver the letter of surrender to Cao Cao, which Huang Gai had prepared. Before long, Cao Cao received a letter from the two spies, saying "Look for a boat with a blue-green flag at the bow. That will be Huang Gai." In Huang Gai's boat there were combustibles. In this way, Huang Gai was able to set fire to Cao Cao's camp. When the red current of fire passed through the surface of the river, Cao Cao's ships, linked with chains, turned into ashes.

              35.The Strategy Of Combining Tactics
              In important matters one should use several strategies applied simultaneously. Keep different plans operating in an overall scheme; in this manner if any one strategy fails you would still have several others to fall back on.

              In 284 BC the state of Yan attacked and defeated Qi. The remaining Qi forces under the command of Tien Tan fled to the city of Ji Mo for a last stand. First, Tien Tan sent gold and treasure collected from the city's wealthiest citizens to general Qi Che. This event convinced Qi Che that the city was truly about to capitulate and he allowed his troops to relax their guard.

              After this careful preparation Tien Tan felt the time was right to launch his counter attack. First he had the citizens of the city gather with drums and cooking pots and instructed them that on a signal they were to make as much noise as possible. He then had breaches made along the city walls from the inside. Next a herd of cattle was painted in bizarre patterns and knives and sickles tied to their horns and torches tied to their tails.

              In the midnight, the citizens within the city struck up a cacophony of noise that startled the sleeping Yan troops. Then the torches on the tails of the cattle were lit and they were released through the breaches in the wall. The enraged animals ran madly about the Yan camp killing stunned troops with their horns and setting fire to tents with their tails. Then Qi's crack troops rushed out from the gates to attack the now terrified and utterly confused troops. Tien Tan defeated the Yan army and went on to take more than seventy cities.

              36.If All Else Fails Retreat
              If it becomes obvious that your current course of action will lead to defeat then retreat and regroup.

              Before the Battle of Chengpu, Jin is said to have retired "three stages" (45 km) before camping on the plain of Chengpu at the border of Jin, awaiting a decisive battle and thus fulfilling Duke Wen's promise to King Cheng during his refuge in Chu. The retirement also linked the Jin forces up with Qi and Qin reinforcements.

              三十六計故事 33-36

              第33計 反間計


              【讀音】fǎn jiān jì
              【解釋】間:離間。原意為利用敵人的間諜把假情況告知敵人使之失誤的計策。后來指私底下離間敵人內部,讓他與自己的朋友、盟友、謀士、家庭、將領、士兵、人民等等之間產生矛盾,從而導致敵方進攻或防御的能力下降。
              【典故】《孫子?用間》:“反間者,因其敵間而用之?!?br /> 曹操給周瑜下了一道降書,周瑜見書,撕得粉碎。周瑜的老同學蔣干在曹操手下當謀士,他自告奮勇去東吳勸降周瑜。這天,周瑜和部下商議破曹計策,有人報告蔣干來了。周瑜一聽,就知道蔣干來作說客,眉頭一皺,向部下說出了自己的妙計,然后笑著出帳迎客。周瑜挽著蔣干的手進帳,并設宴招待。待眾將到齊后,周瑜對大家說:“這是我的老朋友,雖然從曹操那里來,但不是來當說客的,大家不要懷疑?!毖绠?,周瑜假裝喝醉,挽蔣干同榻休息,不一會,周瑜佯裝睡著。蔣干輕輕起身,翻看周瑜的案卷,得知曹軍中的蔡瑁、張允二將軍給周瑜寫了降書,大為吃驚,急忙藏起降書,輕輕躺回床上,假裝睡著。后半夜,有人進帳叫醒周瑜說:“曹營有人來了,蔡瑁、張允說現在還不能下手……”周瑜聽罷,躺下又睡。蔣干偷偷起來,徑直出營,過江把信交給曹操。曹操大怒,殺了蔡瑁,張允。消息傳到東吳,周瑜哈哈大笑說:“我所擔心的就是這兩個人,現在我什么都不怕了?!笔潞?,曹操醒悟,知道中了周瑜的反間計。

              第34計 苦肉計

              【讀音】kǔ ròu jì
              【解釋】苦:受苦,這里為使動用法。肉:身體。即假裝讓自己受到傷害的計謀。這樣做有兩個好處,首先敵人會放松對你的警惕,認為你的存在不是威脅;其次可以拉攏敵人,讓他以為你們同仇敵愾。此計其實是一種特殊作法的離間計。運用此計,“自害”是真,“他害”是假,以真亂假。己方要造成內部矛盾激化的假象,再派人裝作受到迫害,借機鉆到敵人心臟中去進行間諜活動。
              赤壁大戰之前,周瑜苦思破曹之計。一日深夜,老將黃蓋來到帳中,商議破曹以火攻為好。周瑜說:“我也這樣想,所以才留下假投降的蔡氏兄弟,只是無人去曹營詐降?!秉S蓋自告奮勇,甘愿領此重任。當夜二人定下“苦肉計”。第二天,周瑜傳各路將軍帳下議事,命大將們各領三個月糧草,準備抗敵。黃蓋反對說:“不用三個月,如果這個月能破敵就破,不能破敵,早點投降!”周瑜聽后大怒道:“我奉命督軍破敵,你敢動搖軍心,推出去斬了?!秉S蓋驕傲地說:“我是東吳三世重臣,南征北伐時,你還不知在哪呢?”在場的將領們跪下替黃蓋求情。周瑜狠狠地說:“看在眾將面上,饒你不死,打一百軍棍”武士們把黃蓋推倒在地,沒打到五十下,已皮開肉綻,鮮血直流,幾次暈死過去。黃蓋的好友闞澤,根據周瑜的安排,帶著黃蓋早已寫好的投降書前去詐降。不久,曹操又接到蔡氏兄弟的密信,說只要見到插有青牙旗的船只就是黃蓋來投降了。結果在赤壁一戰中,黃蓋引火船沖入曹營,大江之上一片通紅,把曹操用鐵鏈連起來的幾千條戰船燒成灰燼。

              第35計 連環計

              【讀音】lián huán jì
              【解釋】如果敵方力量強大,就不要硬拼,要用計使其自相鉗制,借以削弱敵方的戰斗力。連環計,顧名思義是指多計并用,計計相連,環環相扣,一計累敵,一計攻敵,任何強敵,無攻不破。
              公元前284年,燕國進攻并打敗了齊國,齊國的殘余部隊在田單的帶領下,在即墨城做著最后的抵抗。他從即墨貴族那里拿到些金銀珠寶,偷偷給騎劫送去。這一舉動讓騎劫相信齊國的軍隊一定會投降,于是放松了防御。
              在經過精心的策劃后,田單認為反攻的時機到了。首先,他讓城里的民眾帶著鼓、鍋等物品聚集起來,告訴他們一接到信號就盡可能大地弄出噪音。然后把城墻打出一個洞,給準備好的一群牛穿上虎豹花紋的衣服,在牛角上綁上鋒利的尖刀,在牛尾巴上掛著浸過油的蘆葦,遠遠看去,這群牛就象一群兇猛的怪獸。
              午夜,沉睡中的燕國士兵被即墨城里刺耳的噪聲驚醒。田單下令點燃牛尾巴上的蘆葦,并把它們從城墻上挖好的洞里趕出去。這些暴怒的動物沖進燕國的營地,用牛角上的尖刀和尾巴上的“火炬”殺死了眾多驚慌失措的燕國士兵。而齊國的精銳部隊也乘機沖出城門,大肆進攻。最后,田單打敗燕軍,并收回了超過七十個城市。

              第36計 走為上

              【讀音】zǒu wéi shàng
              【解釋】走:撤退。上:上策。走為上,是指敵我力量懸殊的不利形勢下,采取有計劃的主動撤退,避開強敵,尋找戰機,以退為進。
              【典故】出自《南齊書?王敬則傳》:“檀公三十六策,走為上計?!?br /> 在晉楚城濮之戰前,晉文公分析了形勢,覺得對這次戰爭的勝敗沒有把握,于是決定暫時后退,避其鋒芒。他帶領著軍隊向后退了九十里(古時一舍為三十里,這是成語“退避三舍”的典故),來到晉國邊界城濮,對外宣稱說這一舉動是為了報答當年楚國先王庇護。事實上,撤退為他爭取了時間,去請求齊國和秦國的援軍。
               

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