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                      Yuefu Songs of the Han Dynasty
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                      Yuefu Songs of the Han Dynasty

                      The word Yuefu (yuè fǔ 樂府) came first into being in Qin Dynasty (qín cháo 秦朝)(221 BC-206 BC). Yue (yuè 樂) means music, Fu (fǔ 府) means bureau, put together Yuefu means music bureau. It laid its foundation in the Han Dynasty (hàn cháo 漢朝) (206 BC-220 AD), and became a royal government Musical Department for collecting, writing or performing folk songs and ballads in 112 BC. After then people called poems which were composed in this folk song style Yuefu.

                      Yuefu Songs of the Han Dynasty In Yuefu, the lines are of uneven length, though five characters are the most common. Most of the songs are narrative poems which inherited the realism traditions of The Book of Songs (shī jīng 詩經). Musical Department in Han Dynasty created all kinds of characters to mirror every part in the society at that time vividly and visually. Some poems mirrored the poverty-stricken life of laboring people; some exposed the misery caused by wars; some manifested the opposition to feudal marriage customs and the pursuit for true love; and some revealed the decadent life of aristocrats and the darkness of the society.
                      The predominant characteristics among are the series of ladies all with the character traits of beauties, diligence, kindness, adamancies while no effeminacies at all. However, they also have the lively thumbprints besides those common traits.


                      Peacocks Flying Southeast (part)
                      Southeast the love-lorn peacock flies. Alack,
                      At every mile she falters and looks back!
                      At thirteen years Lanzhi learned how to weave;
                      At fourteen years she could embroider,sew;
                      At fifteen music on her lute she made;
                      At sixteen knew the classics , prose and verse,
                      At seventeen they wed her to Zhongqing,
                      And from that day what joy and pain were hers!

                      Peacocks Flying Southeast The best known poem in Yuefu Songs of the Han Dynasty is Peacocks Flying Southeast (kǒng què dōng nán fēi 孔雀東南飛), which is also the first long narrative poem in Chinese history. It gives a vivid account of a tragedy of two lovers in a feudal family.

                      With rich flavors of life, Yuefu Songs of the Han Dynasty are in the pursuit of faithful reflection of social reality and have accomplished artistic achievements, which have had a direct and far-reaching impact on the development of poetry in later generations.


                      ????? 漢樂府就是指漢時樂府官署所采制的詩歌。漢樂府掌管的詩歌一部分是供執政者祭祀祖先神明使用的效廟歌辭,其性質與《詩經》中“頌”相同;另一部分則是采集民間流傳的無主名的俗樂,世稱之為樂府民歌。據《漢書 • 藝文志》載,“有代,趙之謳,秦,楚之風,皆感于哀樂,緣事而發,亦可以觀風俗,知薄厚云”??梢娺@部分作品乃是漢樂府之精華?!妒酚洏窌份d,漢樂府的Yuefu Songs of the Han Dynasty 設置不晚于漢惠帝二年(公元前193),但搜集民歌俗曲于漢武帝時,已知搜集于東漢末年,共搜集民歌俗曲138篇。宋人郭茂倩所編《樂府詩集》100卷,分12類(郊廟歌辭,燕射歌辭,鼓吹歌辭,橫吹歌辭,相和歌辭,清商曲辭,舞曲歌辭,琴曲歌辭,雜曲歌辭,近氏曲辭,雜歌謠辭,新樂府辭)著錄,是收羅漢迄五代樂府最為完備的一部詩集?!稑犯娂番F存漢樂府民歌40余篇,多為東漢時期作品,反映當時的社會現實與人民生活,用犀利的言辭表現愛恨情感,較為傾向現實主義風格。
                      ????? 漢樂府是繼《詩經》之后,古代民歌的又一次大匯集,不同《詩經》的浪漫主義手法,它開詩歌現實主義新風。漢樂府民歌中女性題材作品占重要位置,它用通俗的語言構造貼近生活的作品,由雜言漸趨向五言,采用敘事寫法,刻畫人物細致入微,創造人物性格鮮明,故事情節較為完整,而且能突出思想內涵著重描繪典型細節,開拓敘事詩發展成熟的新階段,是中國詩史五言詩體發展的一個重要階段。
                      ????? 《陌上?!泛汀犊兹笘|南飛》都是漢樂府民歌,后者是我國古代最長的敘事詩,《孔雀東南飛》與《木蘭詩》合稱“樂府雙璧”。


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